1.0 About Rikolto
Rikolto is an international network organisation with more than 40 years of experience in partnering with farmer organisations and food chain stakeholders across Africa, Asia, Europe and Latin America. The question that guides our work, is: What will we eat tomorrow? How can we guarantee that future generations retain access to affordable quality food, knowing that climate change, low prices and poverty are forcing more and more farmers from the land? Rikolto firmly believes that small scale farmers, who produce 70% of our food worldwide, are a big part of the solution.
One of Rikolto’s global initiative is the Food Smart Cities where Rikolto regional programmes collaborate and work with cities to contribute to sustainable food systems. For Rikolto, food smart cities are cities that are actively addressing the challenge of ensuring sufficient, safe, healthy food for their citizens, while ensuring that the environment is safeguarded and that all actors involved in the food supply, from producers to vendors, make a decent living out of it. In a nutshell, a Food Smart City is a city that uses food as a lever to solve the problems of our time. But what does it look like in practice? How do cities translate these principles in their own reality?
2.0 Urban and Peri-urban Agriculture in Kampala City
Urban agriculture remains vibrant and is critical to the well-being of many households in Kampala, and the demand for a wide range of food products is growing as a result of the increasing urbanization. On the other hand, the viability of the sector is increasingly at risk from urban encroachment onto agricultural lands, declining water quality, high feed prices for urban livestock, and loss of productivity associated with flooding and high vulnerability to climate change.
Most of the staple foods consumed in Kampala are brought in from rural areas, whereby not only the cost of fuel for transport is one of the major factors that directly and indirectly influences food prices in Kampala but also the impact of long distances and the type of vehicles used are a threat to food safety and often less environment friendly. At the same time, urban dwellers are in general eating less diverse plates and increasingly exposed to processed and ultra-processed food, which are often more resource intensive and less nutritious. These factors offer a new window of opportunity for the development of crops and livestock urban and peri-urban agriculture, and enhanced urban-rural linkage, for Kampala.
Urban and peri-urban agriculture (UPA) can play an important role with respect to food and nutritional security, employment and livelihoods, and resource-use efficiency through, for instance, productive use of household and municipal organic waste streams as inputs for food production. It can promote education around responsible food consumption, strengthening city dwellers connection with the food they eat, while diversifying urban food sources and enhancing access to nutritious food, specially by the urban poor. Moreover, urban agriculture can help to maintain green open spaces and enhance vegetation cover in the city which have adaptive and mitigation benefits, helping to control floods, to store carbon, and to lower heat island effect.
However, the case for UPA lacks the necessary research to demonstrate its potential benefits and to quantify these benefits, especially in comparison with the traditional food supply chains that service Kampala City. In light of several key stakeholders not being fully convinced of the potential of UPA to be rolled out on a large scale in Kampala City, Rikolto is seeking support of a consultant well versed in food value chains connected with Uganda’s capital who can help us map and calculate the social and economic return on investment of these value chains.
In partnership with UNEP and through Kampala City Council Authority (KCCA), Rikolto will promote sustainable urban & peri-urban agriculture (UPA) in Kampala, Uganda, that will lead to the creation of urban food environments and food supply chains more conducive to healthy, sustainable and nutritious diets for urban citizens, which in turn will benefit the creation of a more resilient and sustainable food systems in Kampala.
3.0 Scope of the assignment
The study shall analyze the social, economic, and environmental return on investment of urban and peri-urban agriculture, as compared with conventional (long) food chains that supply Uganda’s capital (including benefits from improved food safety, avoided food losses & waste, money invested in the local economy, etc.). In so doing, the study shall also formulate recommendations to optimize the efficiency of UPA.
The purpose of this study is to inform policy makers and stakeholders, and specially to influence the development of local strategies, primarily in Kampala, but also in other cities (Mbale, Jinja & Gulu), that benefit investment and planning for sustainable urban farming.
3.1 Selection of cases
The efficiency analysis shall cover at least nutrient dense foods like vegetables (leafy greens, cabbage, tomatoes, onions, bitter tomatoes, etc.) and spices (chili, mint, coriander, rosemary etc),
The efficiency analysis shall use the Social Return on Investment (SROI) methodology, this to allow a broader range of expected social and environmental benefits to be mapped and included in the efficiency calculation – along with the economic benefits.
Considering the nature of this analysis – which is to compare the efficiency of UPA and long food chains without considering a specific intervention – the study should assess short-term costs and benefits over a period of at least 3 years, to arrive at reliable estimates for a one-year period. These can then be extrapolated for larger periods of time, as to allow inclusion of medium and long-term costs and benefits.
Rikolto shall provide support, coaching and supervision for the implementation of the SROI methodology. In that sense, it is more important for the consultant to have in-depth knowledge and evaluation experience with food value chains, than to have prior experience with SROI studies.
3.2 Specific tasks of this assignment
The consultant is expected to undertake the following tasks, for each of the selected cases:
- Identifying stakeholders (within the defined boundaries of scope); these can be agencies, organizations, groups or individuals who either play a role in the planning or implementation of the food chains, have a (direct or indirect) interest in them and/or are affected by the implementation and outcomes of these food chains.
- Drawing up the Theory of Change of each food chain, which explains the relationships between inputs, outputs and outcomes but not necessarily as simple cause-effect relations.
- Making an overview of the inputs (or the resources) invested and used in setting up and running the food chains. Resources may include financial resources like loans, shares or grants; capital investment resources; human resources like skills, time and knowledge; environmental resources like water, land or nature products.
- Mapping the benefits of the food chains, including a validation by the stakeholders about their perception of achievements or envisaged outcomes for each type of stakeholder.
- Valuation (or monetization = assigning a monetary value) of the inputs and outcomes of the food chains (as identified and listed in Steps iii. and iv.), including the resultant economic, social and environmental outcomes (the benefits) also when market prices are not readily available.
- Calculating the SROI ratio by weighing the total incremental value created by the food chains against the total incremental resource used for each food chain, considering deadweight, attribution, drop-off and discount rates as applicable, and including a sensitivity analysis (variations based on different scenarios or modified assumptions).
- Verifying and validating the SROI analysis with a focus group delegated by project leads (UNEP, KCCA and Rikolto).
- Writing up the narrative of the analysis, including the story and the assumptions behind the numbers, strengths and weaknesses of the analysed food chains, benefits that could not be calculated, conclusions regarding the comparison of the cases analysed and opportunities to improve the efficiency of UPA food chains.
4.0 Expected deliverables
- Inception report
- Final report
- A power point presentation of findings
- Final de-briefing on the report findings
- Copies of electronic data sets (incl. detailed calculation sheets)
- 1CD (comprising 3 products under study) with the report, power point presentation of findings and electronic data sets
5.0 Duration of the assignment
This assignment shall take a total of 30 working days from the date of signing the contract.
The evaluator shall have the following expertise and qualification:
- Advanced degree in social science, agriculture, economics, or other relevant development field is required.
- Extensive expertise, knowledge, and experience in the field urban and peri-urban agriculture issues (preferably in livelihood projects) and of traditional agricultural value chains that supply Kampala with food.
- At least 10 years of experience in research work.
- Excellent analytical and report writing skills.
- Excellent interpersonal and communication skills
- Proven experience in conducting quality evaluations and assessing agricultural value chain interventions; experience with efficiency evaluations and the SROI methodology are an important added value.
- English essential; local language will be an added advantage.
7.0 Proposal submission
DEADLINE EXTENDED | Interested consulting firms/ individuals are expected to submit a detailed expression of interest to the Regional Director, Rikolto East Africa, eastafrica [at] rikolto.org by 12 July 2021, 5pm, mentioning “Urban agriculture efficiency analysis” in the subject line.
The proposal should contain the following:
- Interpretation of the ToR;
- Proposed methodology;
- Proposed work schedule and Budget (consultant fees, field data collection expenses & administration expenses);
- Profile of the firm and copies of CVs of their team members who will undertake the assignment.